Friday, October 9, 2009

Vaccines Part II




Remember: The decision to vaccinate and how you implement that decision is yours and yours alone.

This is a long post but I hope it will be very beneficial to you. See below for resources and sites visited to obtain this information.






Discussed in this article:
  • Which Vaccines are given to your children
  • Side Effects of each Vaccine 
  • Ingredients of the vaccine 


Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Overview

What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation of the liver. The liver can become inflamed as a result of infection, a disorder of the immune system, or exposure to alcohol, certain medications, toxins, or poisons.

  • Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This infection has 2 phases: acute and chronic.



    • Acute (new, short-term) hepatitis B occurs shortly after exposure to the virus. A small number of people develop a very severe, life-threatening form of acute hepatitis called fulminant hepatitis.
    • Chronic (ongoing, long-term) hepatitis B is an infection with HBV that lasts longer than 6 months. Once the infection becomes chronic, it may never go away completely.
    • About 90-95% of people who are infected are able to fight off the virus so their infection never becomes chronic. Only about 5-10 percent of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection.
    • HBV infection is one of the most important causes of infectious hepatititis

  • People with chronic HBV infection are called chronic carriers. About two-thirds of these people do not themselves get sick or die of the virus, but they can transmit it to other people. The remaining one third develop chronic hepatitis B, a disease of the liver that can be very serious.




    • The liver is an essential organ that the body needs to stay alive. Its most important functions are filtering many drugs and toxins out of the blood, storing energy for later use, helping with the absorption of certain nutrients from food, and producing substances that fight infections and control bleeding.
    • The liver has an incredible ability to heal itself, but it can only heal itself if nothing is damaging it.
    • Liver damage in chronic hepatitis B, if not stopped, continues until the liver becomes hardened and scarlike. This is called cirrhosis, a condition traditionally associated with alcoholism. When this happens, the liver can no longer carry out its normal functions, a condition called liver failure. The only treatment for liver failure is liver transplant.
    • Chronic hepatitis B also can lead to a type of liver cancer known as hepatocellular carcinoma.
    • Any of these conditions can be fatal. About 15-25 percent of people with chronic hepatitis B die of liver disease.




  • Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. Worldwide, about 350 million people are chronic carriers of HBV, of whom, more than 250,000 die from liver-related disease each year.
  • In the United States, hepatitis B is largely a disease of young adults aged 20-50 years. About 1.25 million people are chronic carriers, and the disease causes about 5000 deaths each year.
  • The good news is that infection with HBV is almost always preventable. You can protect yourself and your loved ones from hepatitis B.
  • The hepatitis B virus is known as a blood-borne virus because it is transmitted from one person to another via blood.




    • Semen and saliva, which contain small amounts of blood, also carry the virus.
    • The virus can be transmitted whenever any of these bodily fluids come in contact with the broken skin or a mucous membrane (in the mouth, genital organs, or rectum) of an uninfected person.

  • People who are at increased risk of being infected with the hepatitis B virus include the following:



    • Men or women who have multiple sex partners, especially if they don't use a condom
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Men or women who have sex with a person infected with HBV
    • People with other sexually transmitted diseases
    • People who inject drugs with shared needles
    • People who receive transfusions of blood or blood products
    • People who undergo dialysis for kidney disease
    • Institutionalized mentally handicapped people and their attendants and family members
    • Health care workers who are stuck with needles or other sharp instruments contaminated with infected blood
    • Infants born to infected mothers

  • In some cases, the source of transmission is never known.
  • The younger you are when you become infected with the hepatitis B virus, the more likely you are to develop chronic hepatitis B. The rates of progression to chronic hepatitis B are as follows:



    • 90% of infants infected at birth
    • 30% of children infected at age 1-5 years
    • 6% of people infected after age 5 years
    • 5-10% of infected adults

  • You cannot get hepatitis B from the following activities:



    • Being sneezed or coughed on
    • Hugging
    • Handshaking 
    • Breastfeeding
    • Eating food or drinking water
    • Casual contact (such as an office or social setting)












    Rotavirus

What is Rotavirus?

Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection by the time they're 5 years old. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of diarrhea, and severe infection (rotavirus gastroenteritis) is the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children.
Rotavirus infections are responsible for approximately 3 million cases of diarrhea and 55,000 hospitalizations for diarrhea and dehydration in children under 5 years old each year in the United States.
Although these infections cause relatively few U.S. deaths, diarrhea caused by rotavirus causes more than half a million deaths worldwide every year. This is especially true in developing countries, where nutrition and health care are not optimal.
 Signs and Symptoms
Children with a rotavirus infection have fever, nausea, and vomiting, often followed by abdominal cramps and frequent, watery diarrhea. Kids may also have a cough and runny nose. As with all viruses, though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults.
Sometimes the diarrhea that accompanies a rotavirus infection is so severe that it can quickly lead to dehydration. Signs of dehydration include: thirst, irritability, restlessness, lethargy, sunken eyes, a dry mouth and tongue, dry skin, fewer trips to the bathroom to urinate, and (in infants) a dry diaper for several hours.

 Contagiousness
In the United States, rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. It is particularly a problem in child-care centers and children's hospitals because rotavirus infection is very contagious.
The virus passes in the stool of infected persons before and after they have symptoms of the illness. Kids can become infected if they put their fingers in their mouths after touching something that has been contaminated. Usually this happens when kids don't wash their hands often enough, especially before eating and after using the toilet.
People who care for children, including health-care and child-care workers, can also spread the virus, especially if they do not wash their hands after changing diapers.

Prevention
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends that the rotavirus vaccine be included in the lineup of routine immunizations given to all infants. The recommendation calls for three doses by mouth at around 2, 4, and 6 months of age.
The vaccine, called RotaTeq, has been found to prevent approximately 75% of cases of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. Your doctor will have the most current information.
A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction, in young infants. In more than 70,000 children studied, RotaTeq has not been found to have this increased risk.
Frequent hand washing is the best tool to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids who are infected should stay home from child-care groups until their diarrhea has ended. In hospitals, rotavirus outbreaks are controlled by isolating infected patients and ordering strict hand-washing procedures.

What the Doctor's Don't tell you:
RotaTeq is a live, oral pentavalent vaccine that contains 5 live reassortant rotaviruses. The rotavirus parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent strain and the attachment protein (serotype P7) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein, P1A (genotype P[8]), herein referred to as serotype P1A[8], from the human rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein of serotype G6 from the bovine rotavirus parent strain (see Table 7 below).

Now you ask what is human and bovine host?
In the vaccine there are parts of cells from the following species: (human, bovine, canine, mouse, ovine, porcine, rat.)
Fetal bovine serum (or fetal calf serum) is the portion of plasma remaining after coagulation of blood, during which process the plasma protein fibrinogen is converted to fibrin and remains behind in the clot. Fetal Bovine serum comes from the blood drawn from the unborn bovine fetus via a closed system venipuncture at the abattoir. Fetal Bovine Serum is the most widely used serum due to being low in antibodies and containing more growth factors, allowing for versatility in many different applications. FBS is used in the culturing of eukaryotic cells.

NOTE: You will find this ingredient in some of the below immunizations. Look at the ingredient to see if it in the drug.


Table 7


The reassortants are propagated in Vero cells using standard cell culture techniques in the absence of antifungal agents.
The reassortants are suspended in a buffered stabilizer solution. Each vaccine dose contains sucrose, sodium citrate, sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, sodium hydroxide, polysorbate 80, cell culture media, and trace amounts of fetal bovine serum.
RotaTeq contains no preservatives. RotaTeq is a pale yellow clear liquid that may have a pink tint.


Diphtheria,Tetanus, and Pertussis



What is diphtheria?

Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. This disease primarily affects the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (respiratory diphtheria), although it may also affect the skin (cutaneous diphtheria) and lining tissues in the ear, eye, and the genital areas.


How is diphtheria transmitted?

Diphtheria is transmitted to close contacts via airborne respiratory droplets or by direct contact with nasopharyngeal secretions or skin lesions. Rarely, it can be spread by objects contaminated by an infected person. Overcrowding and poor living conditions can further contribute to the spread of diphtheria.
Humans are the only known reservoir of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Infected individuals may develop symptoms of diphtheria, or they may become carriers of the bacteria with no symptoms (asymptomatic carriers). These asymptomatic carriers can serve as reservoirs for active infection and may transmit the disease to other individuals.

What are the signs and symptoms of diphtheria?

The symptoms of respiratory diphtheria usually begin after a two- to five-day incubation period. Symptoms of respiratory diphtheria may include the following:
  • Sore Throat
  • fever
  • Hoarsenss
  • malaise,
  • difficulty swallowing, or
  • difficulty breathing
With the progression of respiratory diphtheria, the infected individual may also develop an adherent gray membrane (pseudomembrane) forming over the lining tissues of the tonsils and/or nasopharynx. Individuals with severe disease may also develop neck swelling and enlarged neck lymph nodes, leading to a "bull-neck" appearance. Extension of the pseudomembrane into the larynx and trachea can lead to obstruction of the airway with subsequent suffocation and death.
The dissemination of diphtheria toxin can also lead to systemic disease, causing complications such as inflammation of the heart (myocarditis)
and neurologic problems such as paralysis of the soft palate, vision problems, and muscle weakness.
Cutaneous diphtheria is characterized by a non-healing skin ulcer covered by a gray-brown membrane. It is typically a localized infection that is rarely associated with systemic complications.

What are the complications of diphtheria?

The potential complications of diphtheria may include the following:
  • cardiac (inflammation of the heart, heart valve infection, heart rhythm disturbances, and congestive heart failure)
  • neurologic (muscle paralysis, muscle weakness, and vision problems),
  • infectious (lung infection, blood infection, and bone infection), and
  • death.
For respiratory diphtheria, the fatality rate is 10%-15%, although it may be higher in patients less than 5 years of age and older than 40 years of age. Airway obstruction and cardiac complications are the most common causes of death.


Tetanus

What is tetanus?
Tetanus is a condition that affects the nervous system and causes painful, uncontrolled muscle spasms. Because of widespread immunization, tetanus is now rare. Another name for tetanus is lockjaw.

What is the infectious agent that causes tetanus?



Tetanus is caused by a toxin (poison) produced by spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Spores are hardy forms of the bacteria that can survive in the environment in an inactive state for a long time.

How do people get tetanus?


Tetanus spores can enter the body through a wound that is contaminated with soil, dust, or animal waste. Spores can get into the body through even a tiny pinprick or scratch, but they usually enter through deep puncture wounds or cuts, like those made by nails or knives. Tetanus spores can also get into the body when skin is damaged by burns or by injecting contaminated street drugs. Once the spores enter a wound, they produce a powerful nerve poison that spreads through the body and causes painful symptoms.

What are the signs and symptoms of tetanus?


 The first signs of tetanus infection are usually a headache and spasms or cramping of the jaw muscles (lockjaw). As the poison spreads, it progressively attacks more groups of muscles, causing spasms in the neck, arms, legs, and stomach, and sometimes violent convulsions (seizures).

What complications can result from tetanus?


In the United States, 3 of every 10 persons who get tetanus die from it. For those who survive, recovery can be long (1-2 months) and difficult. Muscle spasms usually decrease after about 2 weeks and disappear after another week or two, but the person may be weak and stiff for a long time. Other complications include breathing problems, bone fractures, high blood pressure, abnormal heartbeats, clotting in the blood vessels of the lung, pneumonia, and coma.

How can tetanus be prevented?


The most important way to prevent tetanus is through complete immunization and proper wound care.
1. Prevent tetanus through immunization -- An effective vaccine against tetanus has been available for many years. It is usually given to children combined with diphtheria and pertussis vaccines in a shot called DTP. A child needs five DTP shots, given at specified intervals, for complete protection. Tetanus booster shots are recommended every 10 years.
2. Prevent tetanus through proper care of wounds -- Cleaning all wounds, removing dead tissue, and using antibiotics for contaminated or infected wounds can reduce the likelihood of getting tetanus.
Persons with wounds that are deep or dirty may need a tetanus booster shot if more than 5 years have passed since the last dose. An injection of tetanus immune globulin (TIG) given as soon as possible after a tetanus-prone injury can also help neutralize the poison that has not entered the nervous system.

The DTaP vaccine is highly effective for the prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis -- all of which are serious, potentially deadly, diseases. It is given by a shot (injection), usually into the arm or the thigh.



Risks and Side Effects

DTaP may cause the following mild side effects, which usually only last a few days:



  • Crankiness
  • Soreness at the injection site
  • Vomiting
  • Decreased appetite
Some health care providers recommend taking one dose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) just before getting the vaccine to help avoid common, minor side effects. A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad may help reduce soreness. Frequently moving or using the arm or leg that has received the injection is recommended and often reduces the soreness.
Moderate to serious reactions are uncommon. They may include:
  •  Fever
  • Non-stop crying for more than 3 hours (1 in 1000 children)
  • Fever over 105 degrees (1 in 16,000 children)
  • Seizures (1 in 14,000 children)
Severe reactions are extremely rare, but may include severe allergic reaction such as breathing difficulties and shock. Such reactions occur in less than 1 per 1,000,000 children. Long-term seizures and brain damage
are so rare that the association with vaccine is questionable.
Usually, a child who has had a problem with the DTaP vaccine can safely receive the Td vaccine.


There are four forms of tetanus immunization
The DTaP vaccine is a "3-in-1" vaccine that protects against diphtheria,pertussis,and tetanus. It can be given to children less than 7 years old. It is injected, usually into the arm or the thigh. DTaP is a safer version of an older vaccine known as DTP, which is no longer used in the United States.
The DT Vaccine is a "2-in-1" vaccine that can be given to children less than 7 years old. It does not contain pertussis vaccine, but does contain vaccine that protects against diphtheria and tetanus. It is injected, usually into the arm or thigh.
The Td vaccine is the "adult" vaccine. It is a "2-in-1" vaccine that protects against tetanus and diphtheria. It contains a slightly different dose of diphtheria vaccine than the DT vaccine. It can be given to anyone older than 7 years old. It is injected, usually into the arm.
A booster Td vaccine should be given at ages 11-12.
Older children who need a booster Td vaccine at ages 11 or 12 should receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Older children between age 11 and 18 who have not already recieved a TD booster vaccine should receive the new Tdap vaccine.
Instead of the standard Td booster every 10 years, adults between the ages of 19 and 65 should receive Tdap one time.
Tetanus vaccine (T vaccine) can be given as a single vaccine, but this is not generally available. It is also injected, usually into the arm.
Tetanus immune globulin is not actually a vaccine. It is a preparation that is made from serum (part of the blood) from a person or animal (such as a horse) that contains antibodies against tetanus.
It provides immediate, short-term protection against the disorder, but does not provide long-term immunization. It can be used when someone is believed to have been exposed to the bacteria -- such as when a person steps on a rusty nail or gets cut outdoors in a situation where soil may have entered the wound.

 Pertussis

What is Pertussis

Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing. The coughing can make it hard to breathe.  A deep "whooping" sound is often heard when the patient tries to take a breath. Also known as "whooping cough."

Symptoms

  • Runny nose
  • Slight fever (102 °F or lower)
  • Severe, repeated coughs that:


    • Make breathing difficult
    • Result in vomiting
    • Produce a high-pitched "whooping" sound when a person takes a breath
    • Cause a short loss of consciousness

  • Diarrhea
  • Choking spells in infants
Causes


Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an upper respiratory infection caused by the Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis bacteria. It is a serious disease that can cause permanent disability in infants, and even death.
When an infected person sneezes or coughs, tiny droplets containing the bacteria move through the air, and the disease is easily spread from person to person. Initial symptoms, similar to the common cold, usually develop about a week after exposure to the bacteria. Severe episodes of coughing start about 10 to 12 days later. In children, the coughing often ends with a "whoop" noise. The sound is produced when the patient tries to take a breath. The whoop is rare in patients under 6 months of age and in adults. Coughing spells may lead to vomiting. Pertussis should always be considered when vomiting occurs with coughing. In infants, choking spells are common.
The infection usually lasts 6 weeks.
Whooping cough can affect people of any age. Before vaccines were widely available, the disease was most common in infants and young children. Now that most children are immunized before entering school, the higher percentage of cases is seen among adolescents and adults.

See above for vaccine information.


 How does Tdap Work?

Tdap contains pertussis antigens, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid. Toxoids are bacterial toxins that have been detoxified. Although the toxoids will not cause the actual disease, they stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to the toxin.
"Antigen" is the generic term for substances that cause the body to produce an immune response and to produce antibodies. Tdap contains a few different pertussis antigens which have been detoxified. Much like the toxoids, the detoxified antigens will not cause the actual disease but can stimulate an immune response.



Basically, the antigens and toxoids in Tdap "trick" the body into thinking it has been exposed to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The body produces antibodies that will help fight these diseases if future exposure occurs.




Haemophilus Influenzae type B
 
What is it?



Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by a bacteria. It usually strikes children under 5 years old.
Your child can get Hib disease by being around other children or adults who may have the bacteria and not know it. The germs spread from person to person. If the germs stay in the child’s nose and throat, the child probably will not get sick. But sometimes the germs spread into the lungs or the bloodstream, and then Hib can cause serious problems.
Before Hib vaccine, Hib disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among children under 5 years old in the United States. Meningitis is an infection of the brain and spinal cord coverings, which can lead to lasting brain damage and deafness. Hib disease can also cause:
•pneumonia
•severe swelling in
the throat,
making it
hard to
breathe
•infections of
the blood, joints, bones,
and covering of the heart
•death
Before Hib vaccine, about 20,000 children in the United States under 5 years old got severe Hib disease each year and nearly 1,000 people died.

What are the risk?
A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. The risk of Hib vaccine causing serious harm or death is extremely small. Most people who get Hib vaccine do not have any problems with it.
Mild Problems
•Redness, warmth, or swelling
where the shot was given
(up to 1/4 of children)
•Fever over 101oF (up to
1 out of 20 children)
If these problems happen, they usually start within a day of vaccination. They may last 2-3 days.
 

The Active Ingredient:


Hiberix® is a non infectious vaccine that contains as active ingredients Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate, PRP), a high molecular weight polymer prepared from Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 20,752, covalently bound to Tetanus toxoid. After purification, the conjugate is lyophilized in the presence of lactose as a stabilizer. 

Pneumococcal




Overview of pneumococcal pneumonia

 Pneumonia is a lung disease. Pneumococcal pneumonia can infect the upper respiratory tract and can spread to the blood, lungs, middle ear, or nervous system.
Pneumococcal pneumonia mainly causes illness in children younger than 2 years old and adults 65 years of age or older. The elderly are especially at risk of getting seriously ill and dying from this disease. In addition, people with certain medical conditions such as chronic heart, lung, or liver diseases or sickle cell anemia are also at increased risk for getting pneumococcal pneumonia. People with HIV infection, AIDS, or people who have had organ transplants and are taking medicines that lower their resistance to infection are also at high risk of getting this disease.



Cause of pneumococcal pneumonia

Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, and sometimes fungi. Pneumococcal pneumonia is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus Pneumonia. S. pneumonia is also called pneumococcus.


Transmission of pneumococcal pneumonia

Pneumococcus is spread through contact between people who are ill or who carry the bacteria in their throat. Can be transferred by cough. You can get pneumococcal pneumonia from respiratory droplets from the nose or mouth of an infected person. It is common for people, especially children, to carry the bacteria in their throats without being sick.


Pneumococcal pneumonia symptoms

Pneumococcal pneumonia may begin suddenly. You may first have a severe shaking chill which is usually followed by:


  • High Fever 
  • Cough  
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Rapid breathing
  • Chest pains
Other symptoms may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • headache
  • Tiredness
  • Muscle aches

How does the vaccine work?

Prevenar is a pneumococcal vaccine that contains extracts from seven of the most common types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. These bacteria are responsible for causing invasive diseases such as pneumonia, blood poisoning and meningitis. The vaccine works by provoking the body's immune response to the bacteria, without causing the diseases.
When the body is exposed to foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, the immune system produces antibodies against them. Antibodies help the body recognize and kill the foreign organisms. They then remain in the body to help protect the body against future infections with the same organism. This is known as active immunity.
The immune system produces different antibodies for each foreign organism it encounters. This establishes a pool of antibodies that helps protect the body from various different diseases.
Vaccines contain extracts or inactivated forms of bacteria or viruses that cause disease. These altered forms of the organisms stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against them, but don't actually cause disease themselves. The antibodies produced remain in the body so that if the organism is encountered naturally, the immune system can recognize it and attack it, thus preventing it from causing disease.
Each bacteria or virus stimulates the immune system to produce a specific type of antibody. This means that different vaccines are needed to prevent different diseases.
Prevenar contains inactivated extracts from seven of the most common types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. It stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies against these bacteria and is given to prevent the diseases that they can cause.


What is it used for?

  • Preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (eg pneumonia, acute middle ear infections , meningitis or blood poisoning) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria in children aged two months to five years.

Warning!

  • This vaccine only provides protection against disease caused by the seven strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria included in the vaccine. It will not protect against other groups of pneumococcal bacteria, or other organisms that cause meningitis, septicaemia (blood poisoning) or otitis media.
  • Children whose immune system is underactive, for example due to a genetic defect, HIV infection , or treatment with medicines that suppress the immune system, such as chemotherapy, high doses of corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants (eg to prevent transplant rejection), may not produce an adequate immune response to this vaccine.

Very common (affect more than 1 in 10 children)

  • Pain, swelling, redness and hardening of the skin at the injection site.
  • Fever (see cautions above).
  • Irritability.
  • Crying.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Restless sleep.
  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Decreased appetite.

Common (affect between 1 in 10 and 1 in 100 children)

  • Tenderness at the injection site that interferes with movement.

Uncommon (affect between 1 in 100 and 1 in 1000 children)

  • Rash or hives.

Rare (affect between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 10,000 children)

  • Seizures.
  • Floppiness.
  • Allergic reaction such as itching, hives or dermatitis at injection site.
  • Allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, narrowing of the airways or swelling of the lips, throat and tongue.
Polio

What is Polio?
Polio, also called poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by one of three related viruses. Polio is a very serious disease, which can lead to paralysis or even death. Once a person is exposed to polio, it usually takes about three to five days for symptoms to appear.
In about 95 percent of polio cases, infection from the polio virus causes no symptoms or serious effects. In about 5 percent of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form (abortive polio) with flu-like symptoms, in a nonparalytic form (aseptic meningitis) or in a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or nonparalytic forms recover completely.

Paralytic Polio
Paralytic polio is the most serious type of polio. Paralytic polio causes paralysis. In paralytic polio, the polio virus invades the central nervous system -- the spinal cord and the brain -- and may cause weakness, paralysis, serious breathing problems or death. Paralytic polio begins like milder forms of polio, however, it usually causes severe muscle pain in addition to other symptoms. Paralysis usually happens within the first week. The individual may lose the ability to use of one or both legs, arms, and may not be able to breathe without the help of a machine. Recovery varies from person to person, but people who are paralyzed by polio will have some weakness in an arm or leg for the rest of their lives.

What causes Polio?
Polio is caused by a virus that lives in the throat and intestinal tract.

Symptoms of Polio
There are many symptoms of polio and not everyone will experience all of the symptoms. They symptoms vary according to the type of polio the individual has. In mild polio, some of the symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, general discomfort or a slight fever for up to three days. In nonparalytic polio (aseptic meningitis): the symptoms are similar to mild cases, with the addition of moderate fever, stiff neck and back, fatigue and muscle pain. The symptoms for polio and paralytic polio different. Individuals with paralytic polio experience tremor, muscle weakness, fever, stiffness,constipation, muscle pain and spasms, and difficulty swallowing.

How Is Polio Spread?
Polio can be spread by a number of ways. People who have not been immunized against polio or have a weakened immune system may contract polio from individuals who are receiving the oral polio vaccine. In developing nations, the polio virus is spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated by the polio virus. The polio virus may also be contracted through direct contact with infected stool or throat secretions. People are most infectious a few days before and after the onset of symptoms.

See Diphtheria and Tetanus for Ingredient

Influenza

We all know that this is commonly referred to as the common flu.
We also know the Signs, and Symptoms.

Treatment and Ingredient
The major flu shot ingredients are dead influenza viruses. There may be any number of different flu viruses circulating at any one time, but pharmaceutical companies only choose three as annual flu shot ingredients. Even if you take an annual flu shot, you could still contract another flu virus and still come down with the flu. So, it is still important to protect your immune system and practice good health habits. Common flu vaccine side effects include body aches, low grade fever and soreness at the point of injection. There are some rare, but serious flu vaccine side effects that concern many people.
In addition to the major flu shot ingredients, pharmaceutical companies add preservatives. Until recently there were no preservative free flu shots. The addition of the preservative thimerosal to flu shot ingredients has caused illness and injury. Thimerosal is mercury based and is believed to have been the cause of flu vaccine side effects in many people. Of major concern is the increase of autism in recent years and many researchers and doctors believe that thimerosal, a known neurotoxin, used as flu shot ingredients and in other childhood vaccines is the cause.
Some researchers and doctors believe that flu shot ingredients, including thimerosal and aluminum, increases the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease. This, of course, is not one of the common flu vaccine side effects and since Alzheimer’s does not develop immediately after taking the shot, then the link can not be proven. A prominent physician and researcher showed that people who had five consecutive influenza vaccinations between the years 1970 and 1980 were ten times more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than were individuals who had none, one or two.
It is believed that some people cannot shed mercury from their systems and it builds up in their brains causing nerve and brain damage. In addition, some people are allergic to mercury and thimerosal and can experience serious allergic reaction as flu vaccine side effects. Some states have banned mercury from flu shot ingredients intended for use in children and pregnant women. But, while health advocates have petitioned the Food and Drug Administration to ban thimerosal from flu shot ingredients, nothing has been done at this time. Many manufacturers continue to add thimerosal to their flu shot ingredients.
The dead influenza viruses which are the major flu shot ingredients are grown in chicken eggs. So, people who are allergic to chicken eggs could have serious flu vaccine side effects. Some people blame the onset of chronic fatigue on flu vaccine side effects, but there is no scientific research supporting this belief.
The influenza nasal spray vaccine is chosen by some as an alternative to the flu shot. Ingredients in the nasal spray include weakened live influenza viruses. The common nasal spray flu vaccine side effects include runny nose, headache, sore throat and cough. The nasal spray flu vaccine is preservative free, but is only approved for use in healthy people between the ages of 5 and 49.

See additional information on the Mercury in Thimerosal here




  A Quick overview of 
Measles, Mumps, Rubella

Measles

What is Measles? 

Measles, also called rubeola, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that's caused by a virus. It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms, including a fever, cough, and runny nose. Though rare in the United States, 20 million cases occur worldwide every year.

Since measles is caused by a virus, there is no specific medical treatment and the virus has to run its course. But a child who is sick should be sure to receive plenty of fluids and rest, and be kept from spreading the infection to others.

Mumps

What is Mumps?
Mumps is a contagious disease that leads to painful swelling of the salivary glands. The salivary glands produce saliva, a liquid that moistens food and helps you chew and swallow.
The mumps are caused by a virus. The virus is spread from person-to-person by respiratory droplets (for example, when you sneeze) or by direct contact with items that have been contaminated with infected saliva.


Rubella
Rubella is a contagious infection in which there is a rash on the skin.
Acquired (i.e. not congenital) rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases. The virus may also be present in the urine, feces and on the skin. There is no carrier state: the reservoir exists entirely in active human cases. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks.

Treatment to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
There is none


Vaccine Given, Ingredient,
MMR immunization (vaccine)
 The MMR immunization is a very controversial one. Some believe the MMR immunization has lead to Autism.
The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles,mumps, and rubella (also called German measles).

NOTE: Numerous well-designed and very large studies have repeatedly demonstrated no association between MMR and autism. On February 12, 2009, a U.S. federal court ruled that vaccines do not cause autism.
My Point Of View:Take this how you want. I know until studies can prove otherwise they have to say it does not cause autism. I am not solely persuaded either way. Please make your own decision based on the research you do!!



Varicella
Known as chickenpox. It is as simple as that!


COMPONENTS OF THE VACCINE
Two vaccines are currently available.
·  VARILRIX - The active ingredient is a live weakened varicella-zoster virus (Oka strain). Each 0.5mL dose also contains amino acids 8mg, human albumin 1mg, lactose 32mg, neomycin sulphate up to 25 mg, sorbitol 6mg and mannitol 8mg. This product contains no preservative.
·  VARIVAX - The active ingredient is a live weakened varicella-zoster virus (Oka/Merck strain). Each 0.5ml dose also contains sucrose 18mg, hydrolysed gelatin 8.9mg, urea 3.6mg, sodium chloride 2.3mg, monosodium glutamate 0.36mg, sodium phosphate dibasic 0.33mg, potassium phosphate monobasic 0.057mg, potassium chloride 0.057mg and trace amounts of neomycin and bovine serum from the culture media. This product contains no preservative.

Hepatitis A 

Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus.

  • Dark urine
  • Fatigue
  • Itching
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pale or clay-colored stools
  • Yellow skin (jaundice)
There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. Rest is recommended during the acute phase of the disease when the symptoms are most severe. People with acute hepatitis should avoid alcohol and any substances that are toxic to the liver, including acetaminophen (Tylenol).
Fatty foods may cause vomiting, because secretions from the liver are needed to digest fats. Fatty foods are best avoided during the acute phase.
The hepatitis A virus is found in the stools, blood, and semen of an infected person about 15 to 45 days before symptoms occur and during the first week of illness.
You can catch hepatitis A if:
  • You come in contact with food or water contaminated by the virus
  • You come in contact with a person who currently has the disease
There are approximately 100,000 hepatitis A infections in the United States every year.
Risk factors include:
  • International travel, especially to Asia or South or Central America
  • IV drug use
  • Living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center
  • Working in a health care, food, or sewage industry
Other common hepatitis virus infections include Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, but hepatitis A is the least serious and most mild of these diseases. Both of the others may become chronic illnesses, but hepatitis A does not.
The doctor will perform a physical examination and may discover that you have an enlarged and tender liver.
Hepatitis serology tests may show:
  • IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A (IgM is usually positive before IgG)
  • Elevated liver enzymes (liver function tests)
The virus does not remain in the body after the infection has gone away.
Over 85% of people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all patients get better within 6 months.
There is a low risk of death, usually among the elderly and persons with chronic liver disease.

Ingredient

Dextrose monohydrate,Sucrose,Casein,Amino acid supplement*, CaCO3, KH2PO4+K2HPO4,NaH2PO4,Cellulose,Choline chloride,Sodium ascorbate,
Water-soluble vitamins,Salt mixture,Cottonseed oil,a-Tocopherol,Menadione,Erogcalciferol,
Retinyl acetate


Meningococcal

What is meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease is a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) caused by the meningococcus germ.

Who gets meningococcal disease?

Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but it is more common in infants and children. For some adolescents, such as first-year college students living in dormitories, there is an increased risk of meningococcal disease. Every year in the United States approximately 2,500 people are infected and 300 die from the disease. Other persons at increased risk include household contacts of a person known to have had this disease, immunocompromised people, and people traveling to parts of the world where meningococcal meningitis is prevalent.

How is the meningococcus germ spread?

The meningococcus germ is spread by direct close contact with nose or throat discharges of an infected person.

What are the symptoms?

High fever, headache, vomiting, stiff neck and a rash are symptoms of meningococcal disease. The symptoms may appear two to 10 days after exposure, but usually within five days. Among people who develop meningococcal disease, 10 to 15 percent die, in spite of treatment with antibiotics. Of those who live, permanent brain damage, hearing loss, kidney failure, loss of arms or legs, or chronic nervous system problems can occur.

What is the treatment for meningococcal disease?

Antibiotics, such as penicillin G or ceftriaxone, can be used to treat people with meningococcal disease.



Sites and Resources:









Each Vaccine has there own sites as well.



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